Born in Dublin on 2nd February, 1882, James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was to become one of the most revered writers of the 20th century. The eldest of ten children, Joyce displayed a rare intelligence and a gift for writing from an early age. He even taught himself Norwegian so he could read Ibsen’s plays in the language they’d been written, and continued to learn as many languages as he could afterward.
Despite a lack of money, due to his father’s drinking, Joyce’s family pushed him to get an education. He eventually studied modern languages at University College Dublin. After graduating, Joyce started a new life in Paris where he intended to study medicine. Sadly his dreams were cut short as his mother became ill, and he returned to Ireland.
After the death of his mother in 1903, Joyce stayed in Ireland for a while, meeting Nora Barnacle, a hotel chambermaid from Galway who became his wife. He had his first short story published in the Irish Homestead magazine, before moving to Croatia in 1904. While he was there, Joyce taught English and learned Italian, one of 17 languages he could speak by then.
While working, Joyce continued to write. In 1914 he published Dubliners, a collection of 15 short stories, and in 1916 he published his first novel, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Shortly afterwards, Joyce began the book which was to become his signature work: Ulysses.
Ulysses recounts a single day in Dublin: June 16, 1904, the same day that Joyce and his wife met. The novel follows the story of three central characters, Stephen Dedalus, Leopold Bloom, a Jewish advertising canvasser, and his wife Molly Bloom. However, it is also a modern retelling of Homer’s Odyssey, with the three main characters serving as modern versions of Telemachus, Ulysses, and Penelope. The content of the book did not meet with universal approval, though. Such was the level of adult material within Ulysses, it was banned for several years after it was published in France. In the USA the Post Office even confiscated issues of any magazines that had published previous works by Joyce. This negative press only went to increase interest in the novel however, and American and British readers still tried to get hold of the work. In 1934, the case of Ulysses went to court in the USA, and the judge declared that it was not pornographic. Finally, by 1936 the book was readily available again.
Plagued by health issues and poor sight, it wasn’t until 1939 that Joyce published the long awaited follow up novel, Finnegans Wake. The coming of the Second World War forced Joyce to move family away from France to Zurich. It was here, in January 1941, that James Joyce died, after an intestinal operation, at the age of 59, leaving behind him a series of stories that would be held up as examples of literary excellence for the next century and beyond.
Dr Kathryn Bates is a graduate of archaeology and history. She has excavated across the world as an archaeologist, and tutored medieval history at Leicester University. She joined the administrative team at Oxford Open Learning twelve years ago. Alongside her distance learning work, Dr Bates is a bestselling novelist, and an itinerant creative writing tutor for primary school children.